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Posted by / 05-Oct-2020 02:30

Radioisotope dating lab

In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity.

Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions.

After thorium, there is a new downward trend in melting points from thorium to plutonium, where the number of f electrons increases from about 0.4 to about 6: this trend is due to the increasing hybridisation of the 5f and 6d orbitals and the formation of directional bonds resulting in more complex crystal structures and weakened metallic bonding. Addition of small proportions of thorium improves the mechanical strength of magnesium, and thorium-aluminium alloys have been considered as a way to store thorium in proposed future thorium nuclear reactors.

Thorium forms eutectic mixtures with chromium and uranium, and it is completely miscible in both solid and liquid states with its lighter congener cerium.

This is due to relativistic effects, which become stronger near the bottom of the periodic table, specifically the relativistic spin–orbit interaction.

The closeness in energy levels of the 5f, 6d, and 7s energy levels of thorium results in thorium almost always losing all four valence electrons and occurring in its highest possible oxidation state of 4.

Thorium's melting point of 1750 °C is above both those of actinium (1227 °C) and protactinium (1568 °C).

At the start of period 7, from francium to thorium, the melting points of the elements increase (as in other periods), because the number of delocalised electrons each atom contributes increases from one in francium to four in thorium, leading to greater attraction between these electrons and the metal ions as their charge increases from one to four.

At room temperature, thorium metal has a face-centred cubic crystal structure; it has two other forms, one at high temperature (over 1360 °C; body-centred cubic) and one at high pressure (around 100 GPa; body-centred tetragonal).

All but two elements up to bismuth (element 83) have an isotope that is practically stable for all purposes ("classically stable"), with the exceptions being technetium and promethium (elements 43 and 61).

All elements from polonium (element 84) onward are measurably radioactive.

Thorium has a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition, with atomic weight 232.0377(4).

It is one of only three radioactive elements (along with protactinium and uranium) that occur in large enough quantities on Earth for a standard atomic weight to be determined.

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U) that have half-lives measured in billions of years; its half-life is 14.05 billion years, about three times the age of the earth, and slightly longer than the age of the universe.

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